Lytham St.Annes Coat of Arms
Lytham St.Annes, Lancashire, England


A guide to Blackpool in 1934.



A delightful and celebrated watering place situated on the west coast of England, midway between the estuaries of the Ribble and Wyre, is a county, municipal and parliamentary borough, in the Hundred of Amounderness, County Palatine of Lancaster. It is 18 miles from Preston, 49 from Manchester, 47 from Liverpool, and 227 from London, and on the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.

It was incorporated by Charter granted on the 21st of January, 1876, and constituted a county borough twenty-eight years later. The Corporation consisted of a mayor, six aldermen, and eight councillors. The first councillors were elected in April, 1876, and the first mayor and aldermen eight days later.

Blackpool is not mentioned in the old maps of the County, being then only a hamlet in the township of Layton-with-Warbreck, and in a parish called Biscopham, or Bispham. Later, however, it is found in Kitchen's map of the County, by the Rev. Brooke Hereford, about the year 1750.

The black, peaty or chocolate-coloured pool, which gave rise to the name, is stated to have been half-a-mile in breadth, and due to accumulated waters from Marton Mere and the turf fields, composing the swampy region usually designated the " Moss." The pool has been covered over, and forms the main sewer of the town. It was located at the south end, near a house called Vauxhall, which was once a sequestered residence of the gallant family of the Tyldesleys, the site of which is now occupied by the Foxhall Hotel.

In 1878 boundaries of the wards were extended. In 1879 the Corporation applied to Parliament for an Improvement Act, under the powers of which they were authorised to effect various street improvements. The Act further embodied a clause enabling them to expend a sum not exceeding twopence in the pound on the rateable value in each year for the purpose of advertising the town, a power that, up to that time, no other town in the United Kingdom possessed, and, under their jurisdiction, the condition of the borough was very much improved.

At the same time a greater part of Marton was annexed. In 1885, Blackpool became a separate parliamentary division, and, in 1917, was created a parliamentary borough. In 1898 the town council was enlarged to 13 aldermen and 39 councillors. In 1916 improvements were effected at South Shore, and, in 1917, an Improvement Act was passed for the purpose of the amalgamation of Bispham, which was completed in 1918. Claremont esplanade was completed in 1900, at a cost of £150,000 ; and, in 1909, the promenade and sea wall were constructed at a cost of £400,000. In 1926 further improvements proceeded, when Stanley Park was opened, and a Clock Tower unveiled by Sir John Bickerstaffe. A description of the tower is given on another page. 

In the year 1927, negotiations were started for the inclusion of Thornton, Cleveleys, Poulton, Marton, Carleton, and Hardhorn, in the boundary of Blackpool, and, in 1928, the town council decided to promote a Bill in Parliament to give effect to such amalgamations as might be agreed upon. On May 21st, 1928, the select committee of the House of Lords rejected the bill in its entirety.

The first member to represent Blackpool in Parliament was Alderman A. Lindsay Parkinson, elected on December 28th, 1918, and, on June 3rd, 1922, was knighted. The present member for the borough is Captain C. C. Erskine Bolst.

Blackpool is popularly known as the Brighton of the North, and existed as a place of fashionable resort for the recovery of health about the year 1790, and became celebrated for sea-bathing. The air is pure and bracing, and there is a solid plain of smooth and elastic sand, half-a mile in breadth, at the reflux of the tide, while, on its flux, it washes the foot of the fine promenade, bringing health and strength on its wings to enliven and invigorate the invalid.

There is an extensive variety of entertainments, and a complete hotel accommodation. With these essential attributes, visitors have every opportunity for holiday-making second to none in the Kingdom.

The town is supplied with water by the Fylde Water Board, who purchased the works from the Fylde Waterworks Company, The Fylde Water Board consists of 24 members elected by the following constituent authorities, viz., ten by the Blackpool Corporation, three by the Fleetwood Corporation, five by the Lytham St. Annes Corporation, and one each by the Urban District Councils of Thornton, Cleveleys, Preesall, Poulton, Kirkham, and the Rural District Councils of Fylde and Garstang. The transfer of the undertaking took place on August 31st, 1899. The supply of water is obtained by gravitation from the Calder, Grizedale and Hodder Watersheds, and, in addition to the above towns, mains are laid to nearly every village in the Fylde District, and to many villages in the Garstang District. The offices of the Board are in Sefton Street.

The population of Blackpool has grown two-fold since 1861, when the number registered was 3,907 ; in 1881, it was 14,229 ; 1891, 23,846 ; 1901, 47,348 ; 1911, 58,376 ; 1921, 73,800, and, in 1931, 101,533. The area, exclusive of foreshore, is 5,273 acres, the foreshore area being 1,909 acres. The rateable value is 1,099,828. The borough is divided into 13 wards, viz. : Bispham, Warbreck, Claremont, Talbot, Bank Hey, Brunswick, Foxhall, Tyldesley, Alexandra, Victoria, Waterloo, Layton, and Marton, each returning three councillors.



ALDERMEN : Thomas Bickerstaffe, John Collins, Tom G. Lumb, Samuel Hill, Eli Hey Howe, Thomas Pilling Fletcher, Robert Fenton, Peter J. Tomlinson, Geo. W. Gath, John Potter, Thomas Fenton and Richard Swarbrick.


BISPHAM WARD (1,931 electors) : Harry A. Thickett, J. R. Hill, and A. E. Elliott.
WARBRECK WARD (1,807 electors) : Walter Newman, F. W. Halton, and Robert Saxon.
CLAREMONT WARD (3,267 electors) : A. Salisbury, John Anderson, Senr., and John Anderson, Junr.
TALBOT WARD (3,730 electors) : Geo. Whittaker, Jacob Parkinson, and James B. Singleton.
BANK HEY WARD (3,118 electors) : Edwin Holt, John Robt. Furness, and Frank I Nickson.
BRUNSWICK WARD (3,214 electors) : Wm. Sandiford Ashton, Percy Round, and G. F. Burton.
FOXHALL WARD (4,393 electors) : Edwd. Stevenson, A. Talbot, and James A. Ward.
TYLDESLEY WARD (3,295 electors) : Leonard Newsome, John Edward Dugdale, and Henry E. Evans.
ALEXANDRA WARD (2,986 electors) : John R. Quayle, Mabel A. Quayle, and Daniel J. Bailey.
VICTORIA WARD (2,703 electors) : Fredk. W. Corns, R. W. Marshall, and E. H. Altman.
WATERLOO WARD (2,100 electors) : Fredk. Wm. Millington, J. W. Roberts, and Wm. Rostron Duckworth.
LAYTON WARD (4,007 electors) : A. N. Hartley, J. E. Horsman, and J. C. Bond.
MARTON WARD (3,094 electors) : Charles Ed. Tatham, T. Pye. and H. C. Peckett.


Town Clerk, Registration Officer, Prosecuting Solicitor, and Clerk to the Local Education Authority and Assessment Committee, D. L. Harbottle, LL.B. ; Deputy Town Clerk, T. Trevor ; Assistant Solicitor, E. G. Lee ; Chief Clerk to Town Clerk and Mayoral Secretary, Arthur S. Wright ; Borough Treasurer and Chief Rating and Valuation Officer, T. L. Poynton ; Deputy Borough Treasurer, D. H. Charlesworth ; Printing and Stationery Clerk, J. Fisher ; Elective Auditors, W. Mellor and S. Smith ; Borough Engineer and Surveyor, F. Wood, M.Inst.C.E. ; Deputy Borough Engineer and Surveyor, H. Banks ; Director of Education, A. E. Ikin, LL.D., B.Sc. ; Medical Officer of Health and School Medical Officer, E. W. Rees-Jones, M.D. ; Tuberculosis Officer, G. W. Murray, M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H. ; Maternity and Child Welfare Medical Officer, Dr. E. B. Dickinson ; Schools Dental Surgeon, W. H. Tattersfield, L.D.S. ; Gas Manager, T. R. Cook ; Electrical Engineer, C. Furness ; Chief Constable, H. E. Derham ; Chief Inspector of Weights and Measures, W. A. Ladds ; Transport Officer, W. Luff ; Traffic Superintendent, W. M. Campbell ; Director of Cleansing, R. Entwistle ; Baths Superintendent, J. H. Hollingworth ; Parks Superintendent and Cemetery Registrar, Arthur Blackburn ; Librarian, Art Gallery and Museum Curator, Rowland Hill, F.R.Hist.S. ; Director of Publicity, Wm. Foster ; Chief Sanitary Inspector, H. Priestley ; Assistants, T. Cookson, J. Tolmaer, E. Shuttleworth, E. Smith, A. E. Fitton and W. Moister ; Veterinary Inspector, T. Walker ; Meat Inspector, H. V. Dixon ; School Attendance Officers, C. Brandrick (supt.), J. Ellison, W. Meadows, and G. R. Kilvington ; Markets Inspector, H. Wilde ; Town Hall Keeper and Mayor's Attendant, A. Morton ; District Nurses, Misses A. B. White, L. Robinson and B, England ; Tuberculosis Nurse, Miss M. Parker ; Lady Health Visitors. Misses R. Sauvain, B. McCormack, J. Gibson, and C. Hill ; Sanatorium Matron, Miss Whitaker.

 The TOWN HALL, situate in Talbot Square, was erected from a design by Messrs. Potts, Son & Pickup, of Bolton, and is a very handsome edifice, with a spire and illuminated clock tower. The spire contains a ship, 6ft. 10in. high and 5ft. Inn. long, which is used as a weather vane. The Council Chamber, which is lighted by stained-glass windows and a lantern of allegorical design, contains a fine painting of the late King Edward the Seventh.

The COUNTY BOROUGH POLICE Station and Court House is situated in South King Street. In September, 1898, Blackpool was granted a Borough, the first sitting of the newly-appointed magistrates taking place on Wednesday, September 7th, 1899. The strength of the Police Force is 125, and is comprised of one chief constable, one superintendent, seven inspectors, 18 sergeants, and 98 constables. H. E. Derham, Esq., chief constable. The borough magistrates hold their court here every week-day, if necessary, all through the year, at 10-30 a.m.

The BOROUGH BENCH OF MAGISTRATES is comprised of the following :—The Mayor (C. E. Tatham), W. S. Ashton, A Bateman, W. Beddows, J. W. Bellarby, T. Bickerstaffe, H. Brown, J. Collins, J. W. Crowther, R. Fenton, J. R. Fielding, E. Ford, W. H. Fox, F. A. Grime, Sir Cuthbert Cartwright Grundy, J. P. Gornall, W. D. Halstead, S. Hill, E. Holt, Laura A. Holt, Eli H. Howe, F. W. Millington, Geo. Mitchell, J. W. Mitchell, Sir A. Lindsay Parkinson, Wm. Parkinson, John Potter, Tom Platts, W. Ross, B. H. Rushworth, W. Stansfield, J. H. Taylor, R. Tootill, S. Sharpe Waterhouse, Geo. Whittaker, Jessie L. Groves, L. Annie Chew, Jane E. Wilson, Alice Crook, Thomas P. Fletcher, G. W. Gath, L. Newsome, W. R. Duckworth, D. J. Bailey, R. Eaves, Wm. Bateson, Alfred S. Careless, Dyson Holland, E. A. Machin, T. B. Patterson, E. Stevenson, T. Stopford, P. Willis, and Harold Worden.

A COUNTY COURT is held in the Court House, South King street, three or four times a month, on Wednesdays and, occasionally, Thursdays, at 10 a.m. His Honour Judge Peel is Judge, and L. Matley, Esq., Registrar.
The Bankruptcy Court is held on the first Friday in each month. The court has fully county court jurisdiction including Admiralty and its district comprises Lytham St. Annes, Fleetwood, Poulton-leFylde and the Western Fylde area. The court offices are at II Edward Street and are entered by the south door of the new post office buildings. The registrar's court commences at 9-45 a.m. and the judges at 10-30a.m.

COUNTY MAGISTRATES.—Sir C. C. Grundy, Wm. Hodgson, S. L. Stott, Wm. E. Potts, F. J. Thompson, Wm. F. Holden, W. Ross, Percy Langton Birley, Charles F. Critchley, D. Allen, Robert Bradley, Major James H. Kean, Tom. G. Lumb, P. M. Penman, Geo. M. Robertson, J. Hodgson, C. Atkinson, J. Rawcliffe, W. J. Potter, R. H. Cunliffe, Henry W. Heap, Thos. H. Wood, W. Betney, A. E. Smith, J. Pearson, J. Chadwick, J. C. Martin, J. Smethurst, J. H. Taylor, R. S. Crossley, J. R. Preston, J. Jolly, Sir David Shackleton, W. H. Catterall, John Watts, John Blair, R. P. Tomlinson, Sir Thos. Smethurst, Sir Geo. Mellor, Thomas Bradley, Mrs. Pyke, Mrs. M. Penry, Mrs. M. J. Crookall, Miss A. Birley, Miss J. Rossall, Miss A. E. Mills and Miss Maud E. Bailey ; R. C. Dickson, Clerk.

The FIRE BRIGADE STATION is situate in Albert Road, and is of modern construction. The Brigade consists of 6 officers and 30 firemen. The station is well equipped with fire appliances, comprising two 55 h.p. Leyland motor fire engines, fitted with centrifugal pumps of 500 gallons capacity ; first-aid pumps, one 90-ft. Leyland Metz turntable escape fitted with a 1,000 watts generator and a 1,000 watts searchlight ; one Morris Senior van, fitted with a 20-gallon soda acid cylinder and several types of extinguishers and smoke apparatus ; one 100 gallons capacity Leyland Trailer Pump fitted with a 9 horse power ; two six- cylinder Crossley motor ambulances. The Gamewell fire alarm system is installed, and 22 fire alarm boxes are erected in different parts of the borough. The police-firemen are provided with quarters at the station, to which are fitted fire alarms and electric light. Billiards and reading rooms are provided as suitable recreation for all ranks. Thomas Fazackerley, Assistant Superintendent.

The GAS WORKS.—The town was first lighted by gas in 1852. The works, which belong to the Corporation, are situate in Princess Street, and cost up to the present time 433,000. There are three holders and the consumption of gas amounts to 782,000,000 cubic feet per year. The number of public lamps is about 3,551, and there are 181 miles of gas mains, and 26,742 consumers. The gas is sold to prepayment consumers at 2s. 10½d., ordinary consumers at 2s. 81d. and 2s. Id. and power consumers at 2s. 3½d. and Is. 8d. per 1,000 cubic feet. Mr. T. R. Cook, M.Inst.Gas E., Engineer and Manager.

The ELECTRICITY WORKS. By the Blackpool Electric Lighting Order, 1890, powers were granted to the Corporation to lay down works for the supply of Electricity from a Central Station, the original designs being by Mr. Robert Hammond, M.I.E.E., of London. The works are situated in Shannon Street. They have been extended from plans designed by the present Engineer, and contain seven turbines with a total K.W. capacity of 16,550. The turbines are worked by 10 boilers with 150 and 250 lbs. working pressure per square inch. The town is illuminated by 2,414 high candle power incandescent lamps. There are 386 miles of mains, and the total number of consumers is 25,796. Five large cooling towers for condensing purposes have been erected, capable of dealing with 955,00o gallons of water per hour. Large extensions have been carried out by the present Engineer, Mr. Charles Furness, M.I.E.E., and M.I.Mech.E. During the years 1927 and 1931, special extension orders were granted for the supply to be extended to the rural authorities outside the area of the County Borough. During 1932-33 2,589 new consumers were added. The total output being 40,815,915 units, an increase of 10,000,000 units over the output of five years ago (a record year). Mr. C. Furness, M.I.E.E., Electrical Engineer.

The TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT constitutes the Electric Tramway system opened 1885, and the recent institution of Motor Buses. The tramway extends the whole length of the foreshore and promenade, and also has a separate track in Lytham Road, making two miles of single track and one mile of double. A line, over 4½ miles in length, opened through Marton, is exclusively a country ride through the outskirts of Blackpool, leaving Central Station at one end and North Pier at the other. The cars pass many places of interest en route, including Stanley Park, Whitegate Park, Victoria Hospital, Greyhound Tracks and Marton Institute, and the principal Bowling Greens. The Layton route (about 1½ miles) was opened in 1902. This is the most direct way to the Abattoirs, Sanatorium, Cemetery and the Convent at Layton. There are two tram depots, one on the old site in Blundell Street, which has been considerably enlarged, and the other in White-gate Drive, Marton. These accommodate 61 cars, and include the various workshops for doing all necessary repairs and painting. The energy is supplied from the Corporation's Electricity Works in Coop Street. In 1920 the Blackpool Corporation acquired from the Blackpool and Fleetwood Tramroad Co. a system which was completed and opened in 1898. The line is worked as a light railway, and covers a route 8¼ miles in extent, passing through Bispham, Cleveleys, Rossall and the port of Fleetwood. The tramway depot for this line is at Bispham. In connection with the system is an extensive bus service part of which occupies space on the bus station at Talbot Road. Mr. W. Luff, Transport Officer.

The FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY. The Central Public Library (the gift of Dr. Andrew Carnegie) and Art Gallery (the gift of Messrs. J. R. and C. C. Grundy) occupy a commanding position in Queen Street, situated between Talbot Road Station and the Promenade, are in the Renaissance style of architecture, and, with an Ionic portico, are dignified, imposing and symmetrical buildings The interior of the building contains a large lending library, reading and magazine room, ladies' reading room, juvenile room, reference library and lecture hall with seating accommodation for 400 persons. The cost of the building, including site, was about £33,000. Branch libraries are established in Lytham Road, South Shore, Marton, Revoe, Layton, Highfield Road, Red Bank Road, Bispham, Claremont Park and Waterloo Road. The total number of volumes in the Library is 43,000, and the total issues exceed 500,ooo per annum. Mr. Rowland Hill, F.R.Hist.S., Librarian and Curator.
PUBLIC BATHS, Cocker Street, is a brick building faced with cement, and contains private, hot, sea foam, pine and vapour baths, a swimming bath 27 yards long and 8 yards wide, and a small plunge bath for private tuition. The cost of erection, etc., was about £13,000. Six swimming clubs have headquarters here. Galas are held during the latter part of the season.

The OPEN-AIR BATH on the foreshore at South Shore is situated between the Victoria Pier and the Pleasure Beach. It is the largest and most up-to-date swimming bath in the world, where national and international championships are held, and cost the Corporation £80,000. The work of making this colossal arena began in 1921, and was not completed until the first Blackpool Carnival in June, 1923. Accommodation is provided for 8,000 spectators and 2,500 bathers. The building, which forms an amphitheatre, contains cubicles for dressing, coffee bar, three cafes, all under cover, offices, cloak rooms, rooms for staff and orchestra, and two'private slipper baths are provided for first-aid purposes. The water supplied for the bath is filtered with an apparatus which is also used for pumping water from the sea and filling the bath at the rate of 75,000 gallons per hour. The holding capacity is 1,600,000 gallons. At North Shore another open-air bath is in course of erection. Mr. J. H. Hollingworth, Superintendent.

The CEMETERY, opened February 14th, 1873, is situated at Layton, about a mile from Blackpool Town Hall. The burial ground which occupied five acres was extended in 1906, again in 1914. In 1919 it was further extended, the area now being about 20 acres. The Cemetery contains three mortuary chapels, for Church of England, Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. Carleton Lodge has been acquired for a new Cemetery, situated off Poulton Old Road, Carleton, the area being about 300 acres. Total number of interments up to June 8th, 1933, 30,470. Mr. Arthur Blackburn, Registrar.

The BLACKPOOL SANATORIUM is situated in Talbot Road, and was established for the treatment of infectious diseases in the borough. It contains 54 beds and four cots. E. W. Rees-Jones, M.D., medical superintendent ; Miss Whitaker, matron.

The VICTORIA HOSPITAL, Whitegate Drive, received its name by Royal consent of her late Majesty Queen Victoria, at the time of enlargement, which was in 1898, when two new wings were added. Norwood House was acquired for further extensions which cost £7,000 and contains 20 beds and cost of maintenance is £2,500. On November 27th, 1932, His Worship the Mayor of Blackpool cut the first sod on the site of a new Hospital, and on Friday, June 9th, 1933, the foundation-stone was laid by the Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, K.G., P.C., G.C.B., G.C.V.O. Chairman of the Board of Management, Lionel Hope Franceys, Esq. ; Honorary Treasurer, J. B. Calkeld, Esq. ; Honorary Solicitor, T. Wylie Kay, Esq. ; Honorary Auditors, Messrs. Bowman, Grimshaw & Co. ; Honorary Consulting Surgeon, J. W. Hilliard, M.A., M.D. ; Honorary Consulting Physician, L. G. S. Molloy, D.S.O., J.P., M.A., M.D., B.Ch., D.P.H. ; Honorary Surgeons, R. H. Dunderdale, M.B.E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Samuel English, M.B., C.M., F.R.C.S.I., W. J. McL. Baird, M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O., G. H. Buckley, M.B., B.Ch., F.R.C.S. (Edin.) ; Honorary Consulting Anaesthetist, John P. J. Gornall, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (Lond.) ; Radiologist, Peter J. McKenna, B.A., M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O., D.M.R.E. (Camb.) ; Honorary Dental Surgeons, T. B. Patterson, L.D.S., R.C.S. (Edin.), J. B. Elton, L.D.S. ; Honorary Ophthalmic Surgeon, T. S. Blacklidge, M.D., B.S. (Lond.), D.O.M.S. ; Honorary Aural Surgeon, E Milne Eaton, M.D., F.R.F.P.S., D.O. (Oxon.) ; Honorary Pathologist, F. Maybury Hilliard, M.A., M.B., B.Ch., B.A.O. ; Honorary Anaesthetists, J. McAuley, L.R.C.P. & S., R. Schofield, M.B., B.Ch., Ine Major Dove, M.B., Ch.B. ; J. Hacking, Hon. Secretary ; Miss S. Hall, matron.

STANLEY PARK, opened October 2nd, 1926, by the Earl of Derby, K.G., is situated off Whitegate Drive, at the junction of Beech Avenue, Park Drive, Mere Road and Breck Road, and has an entrance at Woodland Grove. It is approximately about 232 acres in extent, containing a 26-acre boating lake, three bowling greens, 38 tennis courts (24 hard and 14 grass), and athletic ground with cinder track, 12 putting courses (18-hole), one 18-hole golf course, three cricket pitches, four football grounds, a green for hockey playing, children's yacht pond and paddling pool, conservatories, botanical, rose and Italian gardens, and a band-stand with seating accommodation for about 3,000. Situated in the Park is a Clock Tower, erected to the memory of Dr. Cocker.
CLAREMONT PARK, Warley Road, contains two bowling greens, six tennis courts and one recreation ground.
CENTRAL DRIVE contains four bowling greens, nine grass tennis courts and a recreation ground.
HIGHFIELD ROAD contains one bowling green, three tennis courts and a recreation ground.
WATERLOO ROAD contains one recreation ground only.
LAYTON Contains two bowling greens. Land has also been acquired for further recreation purposes at Watson's Road, South Shore, and at Marton, off Vicarage Lane. Arthur Blackburn, Parks Superintendent.

 MEMORIAL CLOCK TOWER, designed by Professor Lionel B. Budden, M.A., A.R.I.B.A., is situated on an important site in Stanley Park, erected in 1926. It occupies a local position on the north and south axis of the Italian gardens, where the main avenue is intersected at right angles by a secondary avenue.

Here the clock, placed at a sufficient height, can be seen from all parts of the Park, and the circular place formed at the intersection of the avenues, gives ample space for the steps and containing walls to the base of the tower. From the level of the roadway to the top of the crowning flame the tower measures 85 feet 6 inches. It is a four-sided structure, faced in Portland stone.

The stepped approaches, platforms and containing walls are of Appleby Bridge stone, and the capping, belfry louvres, fountain basins and panel over the entrance, and for the Memorial relief and inscription panel, are of Westmorland green stone. The four dials of the clock are surrounded by a fluted frame 7 feet 6 inches in diameter, and rays project from the periphery of the frame.

Above the clock dials bronze grilles protect the lowest openings in the belfry chamber, the major openings being furnished with stone louvres. A single hour bell is hung in the belfry. Below the belfry, and immediately behind the dials, is the clock chamber containing the mechanism which operates the hands of the clock and automatically controls the electric illumination of the dials at night.

There is an observation gallery provided for the use of the public, and approached by an octagonally circulating stairway from the entrance at the base of the tower. Within the central octagon, round which the staircase revolves, the weights of the clock are suspended.

The Memorial relief is a half profile portrait of the late Dr. Cocker, and the following is an inscription on the panel :
 " This Tower was erected in the year 1926, the Jubilee of the Corporation of the Borough of Blackpool, in honour of William Henry Cocker, Esq., J.P., M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L.S.A., Honorary Freeman of the Borough. A man of ideals, wide vision and sterling ability, Dr. Cocker rendered eminent service to the municipality. He was elected Mayor on six occasions, and was a member of the Council for 35 years. During a long career of unselfish devotion to public duty, it was his constant endeavour to increase the popularity of Blackpool as a health and pleasure resort." 

The jubilee year marked the realisation of the wonderful developments which he foresaw and advocated with steadfast faith and confidence. The Tower was unveiled, and the clock started, by Alderman Sir John Bickerstaffe, J.P., on the 29th of June, 1927.


ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, situated at the corner of Abingdon Street and Church Street, is a handsome Gothic structure built from designs by Messrs. Garlick, Park & Sykes, of Preston, in 1878. It was erected on the site of the old edifice built in 1821, and cost about 614,000. The tower, 139 feet in height, contains a peal of eight bells. A handsome and massive reredos in dark oak, the centre panel reproducing " The Last Supper," from a picture by Leonardo da Vinci, the side windows in the chancel and the windows in the transept, together with the warden's screen, are all the gifts of Mrs. Eccleston. The baptismal font was given by the father of Brigadier-General Topping. The first two children to be baptised were the twin children of the donor. On February 3rd, 1915, Canon Jeffrey dedicated a new organ built by Messrs. Willis & Sons. It is a three-manual with 49 stops, and contains 1,688 pipes, the total cost being £2,000. On March 29th, 1917, a bronze tablet was unveiled to the memory of the late Victor Smith, V.C., by Bishop Welldon, D.D., the Dean of Manchester. In 1915 the Rev. Norman Stuart Jeffrey, M.A., retired, at the .age of 82, from the living, and was honoured by the Bishop making him Canon of the diocese. The church contains 1,223 sittings, of which 447 are free, and the benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of about £800, in the patronage of five trustees, and held by the Rev. J. H. Barr, M.A.

HOLY TRINITY CHURCH, Dean Street, South Shore, is a beautiful edifice built of stone, and in the late Gothic style of architecture. It covers a site of the old church, built in 1837, and was rebuilt in two sections, 1889 and 1894. It has a tower with a peal of six bells. The church contains beautiful stained glass windows and a Lady Chapel erected on the south side of the church, in memory of the Rev. R. Burgess, one of the curates of the parish, who was killed in a motor accident. A new organ by Messrs. Hills & Sons has been added to the church. There are three Missions connected with the parish—Holy Cross, St. Mary's and St. Nicholas'. The church contains 1,066 sittings, 250 of which are free. The benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of £525, in the patronage of Cambridge Universities and held by the Rev. E. M. Gresford Jones, M.A. (Cantab.).

CHRIST CHURCH, off Talbot Road, is in the decorated Gothic style of architecture, and was erected in 1870, from the designs of Messrs. J. M. & H. Taylor, at a cost of £3,500. As a memorial to the late Mr. H. H. Wainwright two beautiful stained glass windows have been placed in this church, the east window being given by the late Mrs. Howard, and one in the transept by the congregation. It contains 1,350 sittings, of which 250 are free. The benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of £500, in the patronage of five trustees, and held by the Rev. G. W. Neatby.

ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, Palatine Road—originally an iron structure, and built as a chapel-of-ease to St. John's—was opened February 15th, 1898. On July 21st, 1904, the foundation stone of a new church, to replace the iron structure, was laid by Wilfrid W. Ashley, Esq. The church was dedicated in August, 1905, by the Bishop, but it was not until August, 1907, that it was consecrated, and the Bishop of the Diocese designated as patron.

The interior of the church has many beautiful stained-glass windows, the largest and most striking being that in the east end, placed there by the widow and daughters of the late Richard Holt, Esq., a former Mayor of the Borough. The window is based on the Collect for " All Saints' Day," and depicts Our Lord on the Cross at the bottom of the central panel, the cross rising up so that it goes through all the lights and forms a fine background.

The main feature in the central light is the triumphant figure of Our Lord, crowned and robed as Priest and King. The other lights represent Apostles, Prophets, Martyrs and the Holy Church. On the north side of the chancel wall there are two beautiful and effective windows, depicting S.S. Ambrose and Cecilia, and on the south David and Miriam, placed there " To the memory of John Grindrod by John Thornton and Mary Grindrod, in 1905." In the west end of the church, including the baptistry, are three smaller windows, erected by Alderman S. Hill, in February, 1906, " for mercies received," the subjects being " Samuel," " Christ blessing little children " and " Timothy." In the south wall are two lights forming a window, which subjects portray " Christ blessing little children " and " The Good Shepherd," placed there by the children of the late John and Margaret Ann Wylie " to their memory," 1911. A brass book desk for use on the altar was the gift of Mrs. Grindrod in 1898, and in the same year a beautiful alabaster font was given by the teachers and scholars of Victoria Sunday Schools. Amongst other gifts are some rich carvings in oak, an oak reredos and effective oak panelling, the gift of Alice and Jane Fisher in 1905. In the same year an oak table, the gift of Edward and Alice Fisher ; oak chairs for the clergy, the work and gift of James Bailey ; the beautiful pulpit and staircase in the memory of Wm. R. Walmsley, given by his widow, Alice, also an eagle lectern, the gift of Ann Horrocks, as a thankoffering and an oak canopy to the memory of John Grindrod by his sister, Martha. In 1906 a seat in the church porch and a folding screen partition was the gift of the Mothers' Sewing Party. In 1907, two oak tablets, depicting the " Ten Commandments and the " Creed and Lord's Prayer," are to the memory of Sarah Ann Gartside, given by Delia Buckley and Jane Gartside. In the same year two complete sets of silver communion vessels are the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Holt. In 1913 a solid brass Cross was given by Miss Porter to the memory of her parents. In 1917 a litany desk to the memory of James and Sarah Cooper was given by their children. In 1919 an oak retable was purchased by money from a legacy of the late Nurse Margaret Alice Berry. An organ, built by Messrs. Jardine & Co., Manchester, has three manuals, and is operated by an electric motor, and was erected in 1914, by sub- scriptions from the congregation. A war memorial, bearing the names of the fallen, together with the picture " The White Comrade," was purchased with money from the legacy of the late Nurse Berry, and forms a fitting tribute at the east end of the north aisle, by the vestry, where daily services are read. The church contains 650 sittings. Rev. W. H. Saunders is vicar.

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, Warbreck Road, is a handsome stone structure, in the perpendicular Gothic style of architecture, from the designs of Messrs. Garlick & Sykes, and built at a cost of £8,500. It was consecrated by the Bishop of Manchester, July 18th, 1899. There are 811 sittings, of which 211 are free. The benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of £300, in the patronage of five trustees, and held by the Rev. William Yates.

ST. THOMAS' CHURCH, Caunce Street, erected in 1905, is a spacious building of Accrington brick with stone facings, was built as a church-of-ease to St. John's. The foundation stone was laid by Thomas McCandless, Esq., the donor of land and a great benefactor. In 1913 the parish of St. Thomas' was formed into a conventional parish, with the Rev. W. Walmsley as curate-in-charge. He was succeeded in 1917 by the present vicar. In 1921 the parish was formed into a separate one, when a sum of £2,700 was handed over to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, which was met by another £1,000, making the nucleus of an endowment of £203. The patronage of the living is in the gift of the Church Pastoral Aid Society, and is held by the Rev. W. H. Lang.

CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS, St. Annes Road, is a temporary iron structure erected 1907. Rev. Glynn Jackson, B.A., priest-in-charge.

ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH, on the Cliffs, North Shore, is a very dignified structure, designed by Messrs. Austin & Paley, of Lancaster, and built by Mr. Arthur 0. Thomas, of Lancaster. It is the first Church dedicated by the Lord Bishop of Blackburn, the first Bishop of the new diocese, on May 17th, 1927. At present, the edifice consists of half the nave and aisles, a chancel and Lady Chapel, The Actors' Chapel, with marble and alabaster altar and reredos, containing the names of the leading actors and actresses of the day, is believed to be the only one in the world dedicated to the theatrical profession, and has cost over £20,000. The Church, when completed, will cost £60,000. In the chancel are two large east windows in memory of Mr. Travis Evans, of Wesham and Blackpool, given by his widow, Ellen, and his son, John. The handsome brass eagle lectern is the gift of Mrs. D. L. Harbottle in memory of her son. The altar ornaments were given by Mrs. J. S. Taylor, and the sanctuary candlesticks by Mr. W. Woodward. The organ was built by Messrs. Richardson & Son, of Manchester, and is electrically driven. The benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of £550, and in the patronage of five trustees, and held by the Rev. F. B. Freshwater, the first vicar, from 1919, late priest-in-charge from 1911. The church will seat 500.

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, Lytham Road, S.S., is dedicated to St. Peter the Apostle and Martyr, and was consecrated by Bishop Knox on July 4th, 1910. The church was first consecrated as a chapel-of-ease, but in 1921 a definite district was assigned, when it became a separate parish. The building is in the late English Gothic style of architecture, and supersedes an iron structure which is now used as a Sunday school and for meetings, etc. Rev. W. Spender Darby, vicar.

ST. MARK'S PARISH CHURCH, Westcliffe Drive, was consecrated by the Bishop of Blackburn, on September 27th, 1927. The first inner chancel and organ chamber and bays in nave and aisles were completed at a cost of £17,590. The church contains 500 sittings, all free. It is of the cruciform type and on the style of the old Roman Basilica. The patronage of the living is the gift of the Church Pastoral Aid Society and has an endowment of £286. Rev. Wm. Thos. Evans, M.A. (Oxon.) is vicar.

BISPHAM PARISH CHURCH is said to be dedicated to All Saints, at least it seems to have been designated All Hallows in the 17th century, and is supposed to have existed in 1296. It then comprised a low tower, a nave, and one aisle. In 1773 the interior was much renovated, and the roof re-slated with grey slate. In 1883 the present chancel was added, and the following year the old church was taken down and the present stone building erected, which accommodates 320 persons. The two bells, bearing the date 1540, were recast into one large bell, with the intention of becoming one of a peal. However, a fine peal of eight bells has been placed in the tower as a war memorial. The Norman arch, at the south-western door, is in a splendid state of preservation, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac are easily traced. The benefice is in the gift of C. H. Hesketh, Esq., and held by the Rev. Henry Ward.

The ROMAN CATHOLICS possess four churches in the town :

CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, Talbot Road, dedicated to the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, was the first Catholic Church to be erected in Blackpool. It was erected in 1857 from a design by Edwin W. Pugin, Esq., and at the sole expense of Miss M. Tempest, sister to Sir Charles Tempest, Bart., of Broughton Hall, Yorkshire. It is in the Gothic style of architecture, and is built of stone in narrow courses of Yorkshire flag, hammer dressed and tuck pointed. The church comprises a chancel, north and south transepts, two sacristies, confessionals, nave, aisles, south porch and central western tower. The chancel, which is separated from the nave and transepts by a richly-decorated and moulded arch, contains four side windows in addition to a large one at the east end. The nave is divided into fine bays of 15 feet each, with massive arches ornamented with deeply-cut mouldings. The tower is of great solidity, and rises to a height of 124 feet. Almost all of the windows are filled with richly-stained glass. The altar within the chancel is beautified with elaborately carved groups, designed by J. H. Powell, Esq., of Birmingham, representing The Agony in the Garden " and " The Last Supper," whilst the Lady Chapel is adorned from the pencil of the same artist, with illustrations of The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin " and " The Annunciation," all of which are exquisitely carved by Lane. In 1866 an excellent peal of cast steel bells was added to the tower of the church, and 10 years later a magnificent organ was opened in the main building. Attached to the church, and within the same enclosure, were erected Day and Sunday Schools, as well as a good and commodious sacristy. The total cost of building without internal decorations amounted to £5,500. Very fine Stations of the Cross have been placed in the church. In 1913-14 the old part of the church was restored. In 1921 a very handsome Baptistry was built as a memorial to those members of the congregation who fell during the Great War. It was opened by the Rev. Father Bernard Vaughan, S.J., in June, 1921. The interior of the older portion of the church was renovated and re-decorated in 1922. Rev. R. F. Moss, S.J. (rector), Revs. Geo. Wilcock, S.J., P. Achen, S.J., and M. Kenna, S.J.

ST. CUTHBERT'S CATHOLIC CHURCH, Lytham. Road, South Shore, is a handsome structure, from designs by the late Mr. James O'Byrne, of Liverpool. The foundation stone was laid on May 19th, 1889, and the church was opened on June 22nd, 1890. Several important improvements were made in 1895, including the erection of a new High Altar, by Boulton, of Cheltenham, and designed by Mr. P. P. Pugin. The reredos is of Bere stone, whilst the altar, super altar, and canopy are of alabaster. The sanctuary was enlarged, and the old rails were superseded by a combination of alabaster and marble pillars The cost of the alterations was £1,500. A large rose window of stained glass, by Mayer, of Munich, is fixed before the High Altar, and a smaller 0ne is placed before the Lady Altar. The mission was first established in 1880, when a school-chapel was erected. Very Rev. Canon Edward Lupton (rector), Revs. H. C. Browne and Fredk. Hampson.

ST. KENTIGERN'S CATHOLIC CHURCH, Newton Drive, erected in 1904, is a neat edifice built of brick with stone facings, and has accommodation for 400 worshippers. Revs. Robt. McManus, B.A., Edward A. McManus and T. Keily.

HOLY FAMILY CATHOLIC CHURCH, Links Road, N.S., built through the generosity of the Very Rev. Canon Vaughan, the parish priest of St. John's, Poulton-le-Fylde, in memory of his brother, the Rev. John Vaughan. The high altar was erected by him also in memory of his sister, a nun. Mr. Pugin, of Liverpool, was the architect and Mr. J. Whiteside, of St. Annes-on-Sea, the builder, who died a few weeks before the opening of the church. The church contains two side altars, one in honour of Our Lady of Lourdes in part supplied by Mrs. Needham, of Bispham. The second one is in honour of St. Joseph, thus completing the dedication to the Holy Family, Jesus, Mary, Joseph. The erection of a shrine in honour of the " Little Flower," St. Teresa of Lisieux, is the gift of Mrs. Tomlinson ; fourteen Stations of the Cross, a life-size statue of Christ the King, the gift of the late Mrs. Dawson, and the erection of a pulpit with crucifix above, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Tarbuck. All the work is finished in Carrara marble, executed by Messrs. Stott & Prescott, monumental sculptors, of St. Helens, the firm's former principal being the father of the parish priest. A presbytery was erected in 1932 by Mr. T. Brierley of Bispham. It is hoped that in the near future schools will be provided for the children of the parish. Rev. I. S. Stott is parish priest.

The NONCONFORMISTS are numerous with several spacious churches in the town. In September, 1932, a Methodist Union was established when the United Methodists, Primitives and Wesleyans were united, electing Dr. J. Scott Lidgett as their first president. The METHODIST CHURCH claims to have existed in the early thirties of last century. The principal church, in ADELAIDE STREET, was opened in 1862, and takes the place of an earlier structure. Churches have also been erected at RAWCLIFFE STREET, South Shore ; DICKSON ROAD, North Shore ; RAIKES PARADE, HIGHFIELD AVENUE, LYTHAM ROAD, and at Bispham. The Blackpool Circuit includes churches at Fleetwood, Poulton, Thornton, Cleveleys and Marton. There are Sunday Schools connected with each church.

The METHODIST CHURCH, ADELAIDE STREET, built at a cost of £5,000, has no external pretensions, but the interior is considered the most beautiful of the Free Churches. Four handsomely stained windows occupy the east side, and are of high artistic merit. A fine organ was erected in 1905. The seating capacity of the church is for 1,000 persons. The NEWTON DRIVE CHURCH is a handsome Gothic building of red brick and terra cotta, has accommodation for 550, and cost about £10,000. SPRINGFIELD ROAD CHURCH, erected in 1889, is in a semi-Gothic style. It is of brick and stone, and cost £3,300. Seating accommodation 400. The one in SHAW ROAD has accommodation for 500. In 1904 a new organ was installed at a cost of £450. In 1920 the building debt on the church, of £1,250, was removed by an effort covering 20 months. The METHODISTS have also a church in CHAPEL STREET, which is a red brick building, erected in 1875, costing £5,700. Another red brick building, erected in CENTRAL ROAD, in 1908, cost £1,250. In 1911 an iron church was erected at Layton at a cost of £760, and one at EGERTON ROAD (Ebeneezer), built in 1913, cost £2,000. The UNITARIAN CHAPEL, Dickson Road, was opened 1st August, 1883, and is a neat Gothic building, which cost £2,924. It will seat 290 persons. The UNITARIAN FREE CHURCH, Lytham Road, South Shore, was founded in 1894, the first meeting being held in the Masonic Hall, Waterloo Road. The present building was opened in 1903. The Church and Institute, in Waterloo Road, were built in 1908. The CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Victoria Street, is a Gothic structure opened in 1849, and has seating for 700 persons. A commodious Sunday School and a Manse adjoins the church. ALEXANDRA ROAD CHURCH, South Shore, opened in 1908, is a handsome Gothic structure built of stone and cost £8,000. It contains a beautiful carved pulpit, the work of a Belgian refugee, and a fine stained-glass window in memory of those who fell in the Great War. The church has seating accommodation, including a small gallery, for 650. Adjoining the church in Bolton Street is a Sunday School. Land and premises have been purchased, which are adjacent to the church, for the purpose of extending the church and school. CLAREMONT CHURCH, Warley Road, North Shore, erected in 1900, is a decorated Gothic stone building. The cost of erection including schools was £1,000. BETHESDA ROAD CHURCH, Central Drive, supersedes a chapel built in 1825. It is of Gothic design, and is built of brick with stone facings. BISPHAM CHURCH is in Cavendish Road. The BAPTIST TABERNACLE, Springfield Road, North Shore, erected in 1904, cost £15,ooo ; that amount includes furnishing and a new organ. It is seated throughout with plush covered tip-up chairs. BAPTIST CHURCH, South Shore, occupies a commanding site at the corner of Station Road and Bond Street. It is a beautiful stone edifice in the Gothic style of architecture. The foundation stone was laid in 1909, although it was not opened until May 13th, 1913. The cost of building and site was £8,500. In 1915 a new organ was added. The church has seating accommodation for 738. The Rev. J. I. C. Litt, minister. The SWEDENBORGIAN CHURCH, Reads Road, was founded by the Society of the Newchurch, in 1890. A building was erected in Stanley Road, for divine service in 1890, and in 1910 was superseded by the building erected in Reads Road. The CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH is situate in Queen Victoria Road ; the JEWISH SYNAGOGUE in Leamington Road. SALVATION ARMY Coronation Street. FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Waterloo Road, South Shore. The CHRISTADELPHIANS have meeting rooms at Lonsdale Road, South Shore, Rigby Road and Gadsby Street. QUEENSTOWN MISSION is in Talbot Road ; and the SPIRITUALIST CHURCH, Albert Road. Meetings are held on Sundays at 163a Church Street, by the PLYMOUTH BRETHREN.

ST. JOSEPH'S COLLEGE, Layton Mount, a private school, was taken over by the Christian Brothers on September 10th, 1923. In 1926 it was extended, and, on the 12th of September the same year, boarders came into residence here. On November 3rd the school was officially opened by His Eminence Cardinal Bourne, when a gold key was presented to him by Alderman R. B. Mather, representing his firm, Messrs. R. B. Mather, Sons & Wilding, architects, of Blackpool. There are about 150 boys attending, and the accommodation is for about 200. Later, the school was recognised as a Secondary School by the Board of Education, and, on August 1st, 1927, was placed on the list of Grant-aided Schools. The local governing body of the school constitute three members of the congregation of Irish Christian Brothers, three representatives of the Local Education Authority, and three others nominated by the central governing body. Rev. J. T. Goulding, B.A., is headmaster.

SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS, Raikes Parade, opened in 1906, has accommodation for 450 pupils. It is recognised by the General Medical Council, inspected by the Board of Education, and is staffed by twenty-three masters, all specialists in their own subjects, including nine of whom are Scholars of Exhibitioners of Oxford or Cambridge. The school has a good system of entrance, scholarships not limited wholly to free placers from elementary schools—scholarships being awarded to successful competitors amongst fee payers, and to junior boys from private schools. The ages of boys admitted to the school are from 10 to 18 years. The playing fields are situated in St. Walburga's Road. Mr. J. Turral, B.A. (Lond.), F.R. Hist. S., 0.C. B. , headmaster.

SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, Beech Avenue, was opened in September, 1925. There are 400 girls in attendance, and the school provides a general education for pupils between the ages of 10 and 18 years. Pupils are prepared for the School Certificate and Higher School Certificate Examinations. The building has been planned on the most up-to-date lines, and contains classroom accommodation for 520 pupils, and also two well-equipped laboratories, a library, gymnasium and large dining room. The playing fields adjoin the school, and have a splendid position overlooking the New Park. Miss M. M. Dunn, B.A., headmistress.

BLACKPOOL AND FYLDE ADULT DEAF AND DUMB SOCIETY, North Shore, was established in 1925, and is the only organisation in the district which exclusively assists the deaf and dumb. The aim of the Society is to look after the spiritual and temporal welfare of the deaf and dumb. By the very nature of their deprivation, they are cut off from the ministrations provided by the Churches and Chapels, and from the provisions for the social, educational and recreational enjoyment and betterment of the rest of the community. All sorts of indoor games are provided, including chess, draughts, dominoes and billiards, and whist drives during the winter months. A Savings Club is connected with the institute, and is very popular with its members. The whole of the Society's activities are dependent upon voluntary subscribers. Mrs. T. H. Jackson and Thomas Crowe, joint secretaries. Joseph Barnes, missioner and collector.

BLACKPOOL ORPHANAGE, Talbot Road, was founded in 1900, by the death of Miss Sarah Massey, who left the residue of her estate, upon trust, for that purpose. From that time, funds have increased by other charitable gifts which now exceed 7,000. The trustees are Alderman T. P. Fletcher, J.P., and R. Cheetham, J. B. Calkeld and Charles Ilett, Esqrs. Miss E. Swallow, matron.

The first column of the NORTH PIER was laid in 1862, and the pier was opened the following year. The length of the pier proper is 470 yards, and the steamer jetty 100 yards, giving a full total of 570 yards. On the west wing an Indian Pavilion, a beautiful piece of architecture, 130 feet by 90 feet, where close upon 2,000 people could be accommodated, was destroyed by fire on September 11th, 1921. Later a new pavilion was erected and the pier altered, the entrance being set back and widened.

The CENTRAL PIER was built by Laidlow & Sons, of Glasgow, and opened for promenading and steamboat traffic in 1863. The promenading part is 1,100 feet long, and the steamboat landing 300 yards. It has a centre dancing platform, 380 feet long by 153 feet wide. Another 8,000 feet of dancing space is provided at the Pier Head. The entrance has been set back, and the width extended to iv) feet.

The VICTORIA PIER, South Shore, was opened in 1893. It is situated at the extreme end of the South Shore promenade, and is largely patronised by the great number of visitors and residents in this rapidly extending district. The pier has an imposing entrance 86 feet wide, and a fine pavilion occupies the centre, which will accommodate about 3,000 people.

The TOWER foundation stone was laid by Sir Matthew White-Ridley, Bart., M.P., on the 27th of September, 1891. The site, including the buildings, cover an area of over 6,000 sq. yards. The frontages measure : Promenade 276 ft., Bank Hey Street 286 ft., Victoria Street 148 ft., and Heywood Street 185 ft. The steel tower, rising to a height of over 500 ft., is the highest in the kingdom, and can be seen for many miles around Blackpool. The height of the tower to " crows' nest " is 480 ft., and to the top of the flag-staff 518 ft. 9 ins. Lifts used are in duplicate, and travel from the 55 ft. level to the 373 ft. level ; the area to this level is 44 ft. square. From the platform access is gained by two staircases to two open-air platforms above, respectively 400 ft. and 420 ft. from the ground. A spiral staircase leads to the higher platforms, and, finally, there is an iron ladder to the " crows' nest." The tower buildings at the base contains circus, menagerie, monkey-house, aquarium, pavilion, roof, gardens, oyster and billiard saloons, restaurant, dining and tea rooms, and wine and spirit vaults. The circus seating capacity is about 3,000, holding capacity about 3,500. Pavilion seating capacity is about 3,500, holding capacity about 6,000. The whole of the buildings are lighted with electric light, supplied from the company's own plant. An underground passage between the Tower and Palace buildings was opened in 1914.

The PALACE occupies a commanding position on the Promenade, adjacent to the Tower. The building, which was previously known as the Alhambra, was built in 1899, and purchased by the Blackpool Tower Company in 1903. The foundation stone was laid by the well-known writer and author, Geo. R. Sims, Esq., on December 4th, 1897. The building has been altered periodically to meet with the changing desires of visitors, and at the present time contains Variety Theatre with a seating capacity for about 2,800, Picture Theatre, Ballroom and Italian Lounge. A subterranean passage, connected to the Tower buildings, was opened Whitsuntide, 1914.

The GRAND THEATRE, Church Street, was opened on July 23rd, 1894, by Wilson Barrett, Esq., the great Shakespearean actor. The property was taken over by the Blackpool Tower Company on December 23rd, 1909, who completed the purchase on January 31st, 1910. The theatre is described by the press and the public as one of the prettiest theatres in the provinces.

The WINTER GARDENS, Church Street and Coronation Street, was formed on the estate known as Bank Hey. A company was promoted called the Blackpool Winter Gardens and Pavilion Co., Ltd., and was duly registered on August 7th, 1875. Possession was gained, according to agreement, on October 1st in the same year, and a scheme provided to place on the land a concert room, promenades, conservatories and other accessories calculated to convert the estate into a pleasant lounge, especially desirous during inclement days. The first completed portion was an open-air skating rink, which was opened to the public on July 27th, 1876. A new pavilion, containing concert hall, floral hall, gymnasium, etc., was erected from designs by Thos. Mitchell, Esq., of Oldham ; and on July 11th, 1878, the place was opened with considerable eclat by the Lord Mayor of London. In 1885 a new proscenium was erected in the pavilion, at a cost of £1,200, and in 1887 the company purchased a plot of land adjoining the Church Street entrance to the Gardens for the purpose of building a Theatre which is now called Her Majesty's Opera House. The theatre was opened on June 10th, 1889. In 1891 a new Grill Room and a Buffet were opened. In 1894 the company first installed electric light, taking the power from the Corporation, but have since erected a plant to generate their own, at a cost of £26,365. In 1897 the pavilion was converted into a Theatre, and the subsequent erection and furnishing of the Indian Lounge, the Empress Ballroom and the new Victoria Entrance, costing the company the sum of £128,882.

HER MAJESTY'S OPERA HOUSE, Church Street, was opened June 10th, 1889, by D'Oyley Carte's Repertoire Company, with a performance of " The Yeoman of the Guard." The cost of the building, furnishings, etc., was £9,373. The theatre is managed by the Winter Gardens and Pavilion Company.

EMPRESS BALLROOM, Church Street, adjoins the Winter Gardens and Her Majesty's Opera House, and is managed by the Winter Gardens and Pavilion Company.

The REGENT, Church Street, is a fine building with a massive sliding roof. It is beautifully decorated, and has seating accommodation for 1,200 persons. Other theatres in the town are used as picture houses, and include the Hippodrome, Princess, Tivoli, King Edward, Imperial, Clifton Palace, Trocadero, Casino, Futurist and Waterloo.

The BLACKPOOL WAINWRIGHT CONSERVATIVE CLUB, LIMITED, was promoted for the purpose of erecting a new Club in Victoria Street, with a frontage of 74 feet, as a memorial to the late H. H. Wainwright, Esq. The building was completed and opened during 1899, and contains well-appointed billiard, card, and news rooms. Mr. W. H. Fox, secretary.

The LIBERAL CLUB has also been built in Victoria Street, the foundation stone of which was laid in March, 1898, by Earl Carrington, and which was completed and opened during the year 1899.

A MASONIC HALL, situate in Adelaide Street, was opened on the 23rd September, 1899, the foundation stone having been laid by Lord Skelmersdale on the 7th May, 1898. It is used for holding Masonic meetings, and also for a club.

DUKE OF LANCASTER'S OWN YEOMANRY Depot, Talbot Road, is a training centre for the 3rd Troop and Hotchkiss Gun Section Squadron. Sergt.-Major Collins in charge.


ABATTOIRS, New Road ; F. Rowarth, superintendent. ADVERTISING OFFICE, Town Hall ; W. Foster, publicity director.
ASSESSORS AND COLLECTORS OF TAXES ; C. J. Lees, 46, Victoria Street and Carter Street ; W. Francombe, and J. T. Thompson, Post Office Buildings, Edward Street.
BATHS, Cocker Street ; Open-Air Baths at North and South Shores ; J. H. Hollingworth, superintendent.
BLACKPOOL AMATEUR OPERATIC SOCIETY ; F. R. Boydell, secretary, 24 Edward Street.
BLACKPOOL AMATEUR SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA ; W. H. Tattersfield, secretary and treasurer, 30 Empress Drive.
BLACKPOOL BOY SCOUTS' ASSOCIATION ; D. Taylor, secretary, 6 Forest Gate.
BLACKPOOL CORPORATION BATHS, Cocker Street ; Open-Air at North and South Shores ; J. H. Hollingworth, superintendent.
BLACKPOOL CORPORATION CEMETERY, New Road ; A. Blackburn, registrar.
BLACKPOOL CORPORATION ELECTRICITY WORKS, Shannon Street ; C. Furness, M.I.E.E., M.I.Mech.E., engineer and manager.
BLACKPOOL CORPORATION GAS WORKS, Princess Street ; T. R. Cook, engineer and manager.
BLACKPOOL CORPORATION TRANSPORT, Blundell Street ; W. Luff, transport officer ; W. H. Campbell, traffic superintendent.
BLACKPOOL AND DISTRICT CANINE SOCIETY ; E. Holt, secretary, 24 Marlborough Road.
BLACKPOOL DIVISION LABOUR PARTY ; D. Holland, secretary, 2e Morley Road.
BLACKPOOL AND FYLDE DEAF AND DUMB SOCIETY, Cornwall Avenue, North Shore ; T. Crowe, secretary.
BLACKPOOL AND FYLDE PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 41a, Market Street ; R. S. Turton, secretary.
BLACKPOOL AND FYLDE SOCIETY FOR THE BLIND, Whitegate Drive ; F. G. Williams, manager.
BLACKPOOL LEAGUE OF NATIONS UNION ; Miss Beaumont, secretary, 33 Charnley Road.
BLACKPOOL LIBERAL WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION, Victoria Street ; Miss A. Crook, secretary.
BLACKPOOL LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, 91 Church Street ; Mrs. T. H. Blane, secretary, 4 Beechfield Avenue.
BLACKPOOL MUSICAL FESTIVAL, 87 Church Street ; Frank Howard, secretary.
BLACKPOOL OFF LICENCE HOLDERS' ASSOCIATION ; T. Greenhalgh, I secretary, 23a Clifton Street.
BLACKPOOL ORPHANAGE, Talbot Road ; Miss E. Swallow, matron.
BLACKPOOL ORPHEUS GLEE SOCIETY ; John W. Pomfret, secretary,  8, Moorland avenue, Poulton-le-Fylde.
BLACKPOOL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE DEPARTMENT, 8-12 Birley Street ; G. Grimshaw, public assistance officer.
BLACKPOOL ROTARY CLUB ; A. H. Kinnear, secretary, 10 Linwood av

BLACKPOOL TOWER, Promenade ; R. Parker, secretary.
BLACKPOOL TRADES AND LABOUR COUNCIL P. Willis, J.P., secretary and treasurer, 21 Seafield Road.
BOROUGH ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR, Town Hall ; Francis Wood, M.Inst. C.E.
BOROUGH MAGISTRATES' CLERK ; H. Singleton, Alfred Street.
BOROUGH POLICE STATION, South King Street ; H. E. Derham, chief constable.
BOROUGH TREASURER, Town Hall ; T. L. Poynton.
CARNEGIE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY AND GRUNDY ART GALLERY, Queen Street ; Rowland Hill, F.R. Hist. S., librarian. CEMETERY, Talbot Road ; Arthur Blackburn, registrar. CENTRAL PIER, Promenade.
CHIEF CONSTABLE, Borough Police Office, South King Street ; H. E. Derham.
CHRISTIAN ALLIANCE OF WOMEN AND GIRLS' HOME AND INSTITUTE, 141 and 143 Bond Street, S.S. ; Miss J. Smallpage, secretary ; Miss Panchard, superintendent.
CLEANSING, Sefton Street ; R. Entwistle, Director.
CLERK TO THE COMMISSIONERS OF TAXES ; Wm. G. Finch, Old Bank Chambers, Talbot Square.
CONSERVATIVE REGISTRATION ASSOCIATION, Victoria Street ; W. H.Fox, secretary and agent.
CONVENT (S. H. C. J,), St. Walburga's Road, Layton.
COUNTY COURT OFFICE, Central Station Chambers ; His Honour Judge Peel, judge, L. Matley, registrar.
CUSTOMS, EXCISE AND PENSIONS OFFICE, 7 Edward Street ; M. T. Groves, surveyor.
DIRECTOR OF EDUCATION, Market Street ; A. E. Ikin, LL.D., B.Sc.
DISTRICT NURSES ; Miss A. B. White, Miss L. Robinson and Miss B. England ; Tuberculosis Nurse, Miss M. Parker.
DUKE OF LANCASTER'S OWN YEOMANRY, Talbot Road ; Sergt.-Major Collins.
EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE, Victoria Schools, Tyldesley Road ; T. Hall, manager.
FIRE BRIGADE, Albert Road ; H. E. Derham, chief constable and officer.
FOXTON DISPENSARY, Cedar Street ; H. E. Cockcroft, M.R.C.S. (Eng.), M.R.0 .P (Lond .) , medical officer.
FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Queen Street ; Rowland Hill, F.R. Hist. S., chief librarian.
FYLDE DISTRICT REFEREES' AND LINESMEN'S ASSOCIATION ; A. R. Atkinson, secretary, 23 Chapel Street.
FYLDE WATER BOARD OFFICES, Sefton Street ; G. F. Atkinson, M. Inst. C.E., engineer ; John Hall, clerk and solicitor.
G.P.O., Abingdon Street ; R. S. Campbell, postmaster.
GRUNDY ART GALLERY and MUSEUM, Queen Street ; Rowland Hill, F.R. Hist. S., curator.
GRUNDY CONVALESCENT HOME, Stoney Hill, Squires Gate ; Miss F. Scott, matron.
HEALTH VISITORS, Sefton Street ; Miss R. Souvain, Miss C. Hill and Miss Gibson.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES NURSE, Sefton Street; Miss B. McCormack. INLAND REVENUE OFFICE, Post Office Buildings, Edward Street.
INSPECTORS OF TAXES, Post Office Buildings, Edward Street ; R. J. McLaughlin and J. J. O'Connor, 12 Clifton Street.
LIBRARIAN, Free Public Library and Grundy Art Gallery and Museum, Queen Street ; Rowland Hill, F.R. Hist. S.
LYTHAM AND ST. ANNES TRANSPORT ; Depot, Squires Gate ; J. C. Fairchild, engineer and manager.
MAGISTRATES' CLERK (Borough) ; Hugh Singleton, Alfred Street.
MAGISTRATES' CLERK (County) ; R. C. Dickson, Adelaide Street.
MARKET, INSPECTOR, Lytham Street ; H. Wilde.

MASONIC HALL, Adelaide Street ; A. H. West, secretary.
MEAT INSPECTOR, Sefton Street ; H. V. Dixon.

MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH, Sefton Street ; E. W. Rees Jones, M.D.
MINISTRY OF LABOUR EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE, Tyldesley Road, S.S. ; T. Hall, manager.

MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY, Queen Street ; Rowland Hill, F.R.Hist.S., curator.
NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR THE BLIND ; J. Ellison, Hindlewood, Colwyn Avenue, Marton.
N.S.P.C.C. ; H. Redford, inspector, 94 Regent Road.
PARK SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE, Stanley Park ; Arthur Blackburn
POLICE STATION, South King Street ; H. E. Derham, chief constable.
POST OFFICE, Abingdon Street ; R. S. Campbell, postmaster.
PUBLIC VACCINATORS ; Drs. H. E. Cockroft and R. Thursz.

REGISTRAR OF BIRTHS, DEATHS AND MARRIAGES ; J. A. Jump, I. Westbourne Avenue, S.S., and G. N. Rees, 26 Raikes Parade.
ROYAL NATIONAL LIFEBOAT INSTITUTION (Blackpool Station) ; C. E. Tatham, hon. secretary.
R.S.P.C.A. (Fylde Branch) ; J. F. Thomas, inspector, 16 Langfield Avenue, S.S. ; (Blackpool Branch) J. Thomas, inspector, 5 Tyne Street.
RURAL DEAN : Rev. Canon Ellison, St. Thomas's Church, St. Annes.
ST. JOHN AMBULANCE BRIGADE (Blackpool Division), Empress Chambers, Church Street ; T. Halsall, secretary.
SANATORIUM AND MATERNITY WARD, Talbot Road ; Miss E. M. Procter, matron.
SANITARY INSPECTOR'S OFFICE, Sefton Street ; H. Priestley (chief) ; T. Cookson, J. Tolmaer, A. E. Fitton, E. Shuttleworth and E. Smith (inspectors).
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OFFICERS, Market Street ; C. Brandrick (superintendent) ; J. E. Walkden, J. Ellison, W. Meadows and G. R. Kilmington.
SECONDARY SCHOOLS, Raikes Parade ; J. Turral, B.A. (Lond.), F. R. Hist. S., headmaster.
STATIONERY OFFICE, Town Hall ; J. Fisher, manager.
SURROGATES : Rev. John H. Barr, M.A., The Vicarage, Park Road ; Rev. E. M. Gresford-Jones, Holy Trinity Vicarage, 1 Windermere Road, S.S. ; Rev. Charles W. Macready, B.A., St. Paul's Vicarage, Marton.
TERRITORIAL ARMY, 88th West Lancs. Brigade, R.F.A., 351st Battery ; Major E. R. Read, officer commanding
TOWN CLERK, Town Hall ; D. L. Harbottle, LL.B.
TOWN CLERK'S CHIEF CLERK, Town Hall ; A. S. Wright.
TOWN HALL, Talbot. Square and Lytham Street ; A. Morton, keeper.
TRINITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC, 77 Church Street ; J. S. Warburton, secretary.
VICTORIA HOSPITAL, Whitegate Drive ; J. Hacking, hon. secretary ; Miss S. Hall, matron.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES INSPECTOR'S OFFICE, Charnley Road ; Wm. A. Ladds, chief inspector.
WEST LANCASHIRE (88th) BRIGADE, R.F.A., 351St BATTERY, Drill Hall, Yorkshire Street ; Major E. R. Read, C.O.
WOOD STREET MISSION HOME HOLIDAY CAMP, Squires Gate ; H. Bent, camp master.


BLACKPOOL AMATEUR SWIMMING CLUB, Cocker Street Baths ; J. Waterhouse, secretary.
BLACKPOOL CENTRAL CHESS CLUB, Arcade Cafe ; G. S. Lawrence, secretary.
BLACKPOOL CENTRAL SOCIAL BOWLING CLUB, Bloomfield Road ; G. Sherlock, secretary.
BLACKPOOL CENTRAL WORKING MEN'S CLUB AND INSTITUTE, 1a Kent Road ; Samuel Eastwood, secretary.
BLACKPOOL CHESS CLUB, Mason's Cafe, St. Ann's Street.
BLACKPOOL CRICKET CLUB, Park Drive ; T. Wallers Pimley, secretary.
BLACKPOOL AND FLEETWOOD YACHT CLUB, Royal Hotel ; C. E. Tatham, secretary.
BLACKPOOL FOOTBALL CLUB, Bloomfield Road, South Shore ; T. A. Barcroft, secretary.
BLACKPOOL GOLF CLUB, Squires Gate ; Vernon H. Seddon, secretary.
BLACKPOOL GOLF CLUB, North Shore ; J. Bailey, secretary.
BLACKPOOL LADIES' HOCKEY CLUB ; Miss D. Pickup, hon. secretary.
BLACKPOOL LADIES' CLUB, 146 North Promenade.

BLACKPOOL MASONIC CLUB, Adelaide Street ; A. H. West, secretary.
BLACKPOOL POLICE SPORTS CLUB, Police Station ; T. Fazackerley,
hon. secretary.
BLACKPOOL TRADES AND LABOUR COUNCIL CLUB, 71 Erdington Road ; P. Willis, secretary.
BLACKPOOL SUBSCRIPTION BOWLING CLUB, Somerset Avenue ; S. M. Butler, secretary.
BLOOMFIELD CLUB AND INSTITUTE, Bloomfield Road ; W. B. Forshaw,secretary.
BLACKPOOL LADIES' BOWLING CLUB, Bloomfield Road ; Mrs. F.secretary.
BRITISH LEGION CLUB, go & 92 Topping Street ; Captain G. R. Jackson, secretary.
BRITISH LEGION CLUB, Adelaide Street ; W. Hogarth, secretary.
BRUNSWICK CLUB, 61 Chapel Street ; W. H. Maud, secretary.
CENTRAL UNITED BOWLING CLUB ; J. Huddart, secretary, 28 Levens
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH INSTITUTE, Alexandra Road ; D. Broomfield, secretary.
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH MEN'S INSTITUTE, Victoria Street ; W.Hindle, secretary.
CLAREMONT PARK BOWLING CLUB ; F. Silcock, secretary.
CLAREMONT UNIONIST CLUB, Warley Road, N.S. ; D. Atkinson, sec.
CLIFTON TENNIS CLUB, Preston New Road ; L. Blundell, secretary.

CONSERVATIVE CLUB (Talbot), Buchanan Street ; W. Myerscough, sec.
CONSERVATIVE CLUB (Wainwright), Victoria Street ; W. H. Fox,
DISABLED EX-SERVICEMEN'S ASSOCIATION SOCIAL CLUB, 177 & 179 Hawes Side Lane ; J. Chadwick, secretary.
DISCHARGED SOLDIERS' & SAILORS' SOCIAL CLUB, 42 Bond Street ;Atkinson, secretary.
DISCHARGED SOLDIERS' & SAILORS' SOCIAL CLUB, Talbot Road. W.Burnett, secretary.
DISTRICT CLUB, Station Road, S.S., Ivan Aspinall, secretary.
LAYTON AMATEUR BOWLING CLUB, Layton ; J. J. McVittie, secretary.
LIBERAL CLUB, Victoria Street ; H. Hardman, secretary.
secretary, 32 Leeds Road.
NEW CHURCH TENNIS CLUB, Preston New Road ; H. T. Booth, sec.
POLICE SPORTS CLUB, Police Station, South King Street.

R.A.O.B. CLUB AND INSTITUTE, Stanley Road ; F. Holden, secretary
ST. CUTHBERT'S CATHOLIC INSTITUTE, Bagot Street, S.S. ; R. Elwood, secretary.

ST. THOMAS' MEN'S INSTITUTE, Caunce Street ; R. B. Oates, secretary,
SOUTH SHORE BOWLING CLUB, Green Avenue ; T. B. Ogden, secretary.
SOUTH SHORE TENNIS CLUB ; J. L. Law, secretary, 9 Sandon Place.
SOUTH SHORE TRADESMEN'S CLUB, 4 Waterloo Road ; C. Pollard,
STANLEY PARK BOWLING CLUB ; F. W. Walker, secretary, 21 Beech  Avenue.
WESLEYAN YOUNG MEN'S INSTITUTE, North Shore ; H. Seddon, sec.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB, Water Street ; J. C. Rossler, secretary.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Layton), Westcliffe Drive ; J. W. Hoggart,
WORKINGMEN'S CLUB (Marton), Waterloo Road ; Edwin Round, sec.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Philharmonic), 70 Foxhall Road ; T. W. Horsfield, secretary.

WORKING MEN'S CLUB, George Street ; R. Higham, secretary.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB, St. Annes Road ; C. Prescott, secretary.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Hawes Side), Brun Grove ; A. Dyer, secretary.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Trades and Labour), 71 Erdington Road ; P.
Willis, secretary.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Whitegate), Lever Street ; L. Pollard, sec.
WORKING MEN'S CLUB (Victory), Victory Road ; F. Heaton, secretary.
WORKING. MEN'S CLUB (North Shore) ; 7 Cross Street ; B. Bentley,
WORKING MEN'S CLUB, I & 3 Harcourt Street ; J. Bland, secretary.